There is one critically important reason to wear headphones while programming.

When you understand the impact of this, it will change how you think about what it means to make things and what that process requires.

Programmers wear headphones so that they won’t be bothered. That much is pretty obvious. The reason why being bothered is an issue is something I’ll get to in a moment.

You see, the modern workplace is designed to ruin programmer productivity. If I were to design an office space to maximize programmer output, it would look like the opposite of nearly every modern office space I’ve ever worked out of.

Actually, I now work in an office that basically maximizes my potential output as a programmer. It does look like the opposite of most modern corporate offices.

The Big Gimmick Right Now In Office Space Design Is “Open Office Spaces”…

This approach seeks to improve collaboration (as if that is the great problem of modern work).

Open office spaces exist so that it looks like everybody is busy working. It looks cool to see so many people busily walking around, talking, and in general looking busy. There is a sound component to it as well.

Open office spaces are loud!

But again, it looks and feels like an improvement over the previous decades’ bad idea - cubicle farms.

Also, open office spaces are cheaper than cube farms. So, companies are saving money while making everybody look busy. (…even at the cost of huge productivity decreases)

This Is Terrible For The Actual Act Of Programming!

The art of programming tends to rely on the same thing most art relies on - flow.

Getting into the “flow state” is where the real magic of programming happens. The place where you focus on a problem deep enough to make connections and leaps and do your best work without “thinking”. This is very similar to playing music, writing, and painting.

It’s About Flow.

Imagine if Leonardo da Vinci was expected to paint the Mona Lisa in an open office space while his coworkers and manager would stop him mid stroke every 15 minutes to ask a question. Would he have ever painted it?

No, I don’t think so.

And yet…

…Programming Is A Creative Process That Requires An Appropriate Environment

Take authors as a similar example. Stephen King doesn’t “collaborate” to write his books. He sits down at the typewriter or keyboard and starts writing. Imagine if he had to do a daily standup about his latest few pages each day with a committee of his peers.

His work would suffer.

It turns out that to code well we rely on that same kind of process of getting into flow and doing creative work with our minds. It’s how are brains do creative work.

People like Paul Graham have written about Makers Schedule vs. Managers Schedule before with a similar understanding.

Do You Understand Flow?

It takes something like 5–30 minutes to get into a flow state. If uninterrupted, time distortion kicks in and a couple hours fly by and a bunch of code is created.

Every interruption resets the clock on that process.

So, what programmers need to maximize flow (and thus output) is blocks of 2–4 hours without interruption. Ideally a whole day without interruption would allow for as many as 3 or 4 blocks of “flow”.

As near as I can tell, the average programmer tends to only get one flow block a day. Sometimes a diligent programmer will manage two or three flow blocks a day. That doesn’t happen very often from what I can tell.

Headphones Maximize Flow (sometimes…)

Headphones, especially noise cancelling headphones (like the ones I’m wearing right now), are an effort by programmers to block out interruptions and stay in a flow state.

With open offices, email, slack notifications, coworkers tapping you on the shoulder, and so on…

It’s almost impossible to get to a flow state as a programmer.

So, my advice to you is simple. If you are a programmer trying to maximize the total productivity and flow blocks each day, wear headphones, avoid meetings, don’t check email, turn off slack, and basically go into a cave and write code.

And if you don’t have the option to do that, accept the fact that you might only be able to get one flow block a day and plan accordingly.

No matter what, find your flow. Headphones can help.